Vaginismus is a condition that causes involuntary muscle spasms in the pelvic floor muscles, which can make sexual intercourse or even inserting a tampon painful or impossible. It can be caused by a variety of physical, psychological, and lifestyle factors. The causes behind vaginismus aren’t clear cut, but professionals believe that the following may cause the condition:

  • Fear is associated with the physical appearance and size of the vagina
  • A traumatizing or bad early or first sexual experience
  • Abuse associated with genitalia
  • Belief in negative thoughts about sex
  • Having had a medical condition such as a yeast infection
  • Having a first gynaecological examination that was unpleasant
  • Having other anxiety disorders and phobias
  • Ill-informed or misinformed about human sexual response, especially with the female anatomy

Vaginismus Causes

Physical Causes

  • Pelvic pain or discomfort
  • Previous trauma or surgery to the pelvis or genital area
  • Infections or irritations in the genital area
  • Certain medical conditions, such as vulvodynia or lichen sclerosus

Psychological Causes

Image 1 75

Presence Of Medical Conditions

Anxiety or fear related to sexual activity or the genital area

Vaginismus can also be caused by psychological factors, such as anxiety, stress, or relationship concerns. Women who are anxious about sex or who feel under pressure to perform may be more prone to vaginismus. Similarly, women who are experiencing relationship concerns or conflicts may also be more likely to develop vaginismus.

Negative past experiences or trauma related to sexual activity

Women who have experienced sexual abuse or assault may develop vaginismus as a coping mechanism to avoid further trauma. Similarly, women who have had negative or painful sexual experiences in the past may also be more prone to vaginismus.

Lack of knowledge or education about sexual anatomy and function

Women who are not familiar with their own bodies or who have incorrect or distorted views of sexual anatomy may be more prone to vaginismus.

  • Relationship problems or communication concerns with a partner

Lifestyle Factors

  • Lack of physical activity or poor muscle tone in the pelvic area
  • Chronic stress or anxiety
  • Substance abuse or addiction
  • Certain medications that can cause muscle spasms or discomfort in the genital area

Childbirth Injuries And Vaginismus

mother holding a baby

It is possible for childbirth-related injuries to lead to vaginismus in some individuals. Childbirth can cause physical changes to the vagina and perineum (the area between the anus and the vagina), and these changes can be a source of discomfort or pain for some women. In some cases, the fear of experiencing pain or discomfort during intercourse may lead to vaginismus.

Examine your sexual health with a 2 minute self-assessment.
Get a FREE assessment
Take self-assessment
people received expert guidance for their concerns.


Treatment for vaginismus related to childbirth may involve a combination of approaches, such as pelvic floor muscle exercises, sex therapy, and graduated dilation therapy. It is important to work with a healthcare provider or mental health professional to determine the most appropriate treatment approach for your specific situation.

Menopause And Vaginismus

Menopause And Vaginismus

Menopause is the natural process that occurs when a woman’s body stops producing eggs and her menstrual cycle comes to an end. It is marked by a number of physical and emotional changes, including hot flashes, mood swings, and changes in sexual desire and function. Many women also experience changes in the structure and function of their genital tissues during menopause, which can lead to discomfort and pain during sex.


One such change is vaginal atrophy, a condition in which the walls of the vagina become thin, dry, and inflamed due to a decrease in estrogen production. Vaginal atrophy can cause the vaginal muscles to become weak and less elastic, making them more prone to spasm and discomfort during penetration. In some cases, these muscle spasms can become so severe that they interfere with sexual activity, leading to the development of vaginismus.


It is important to note that not all women who experience menopause will develop vaginismus, and not all women with vaginismus are going through menopause. However, if you are experiencing symptoms of vaginismus and are going through menopause, it may be worth discussing the potential role of menopause with your healthcare provider. They can help you manage your menopausal symptoms and may recommend treatments such as estrogen replacement therapy or pelvic floor physical therapy to improve your vaginal health and reduce the likelihood of vaginismus.

Limbic Response: What Does That Have To Do With Vaginismus?

One approach to managing vaginismus is to use a technique known as the “limbic response.”

Ask allo sexpert ai
Have questions?

Ask Allo SexpertAI

24x7 AI backed chatbot for all your sexual health related queries


The limbic response is a natural reflex that occurs when the body perceives a threat or danger. It is characterized by a surge of adrenaline and other stress hormones that prepare the body for “fight or flight.” In the context of vaginismus, the limbic response can be triggered by thoughts, feelings, or experiences related to sex or sexual activity.


To understand how the limbic response can contribute to vaginismus, it is helpful to consider the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS is part of the body’s “automatic” or unconscious nervous system, and it is responsible for activating the body’s physical and emotional responses to stress. When the SNS is activated, it can cause the vaginal muscles to contract and spasm, leading to pain and discomfort during sex.


To manage vaginismus using the limbic response, it is necessary to identify and address the underlying triggers that activate the SNS and cause the vaginal muscles to spasm. This may involve seeking help from a mental health professional to work through past traumas or other psychological issues, or it may involve learning relaxation techniques or other strategies to manage anxiety and stress related to sex.


If you are struggling with vaginismus, it is important to remember that you are not alone and that effective treatment is available. Talk to your healthcare provider or a mental health professional about your concerns and they can help you find the support and resources you need to manage this condition and improve your quality of life.

Symptoms of Vaginismus

  • Pain or discomfort during sexual activity
  • Difficulty inserting a tampon
  • Difficulty with gynecological exams or inserting a speculum
  • Difficulty with using a menstrual cup
  • Involuntary tightening or muscle spasms of the pelvic floor muscles during attempted penetration

Treatment Options For Vaginismus

Treatment for vaginismus typically involves a combination of therapy, education, and relaxation techniques. A therapist or counselor can help a woman address any underlying emotional concerns or past trauma that may be contributing to her vaginismus. Education about sexual anatomy and the sexual response cycle can also be helpful in relieving any misconceptions or misunderstandings that may be contributing to the condition. Relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or progressive muscle relaxation, can help a woman manage her anxiety and tension during sexual activity.

There are many possible causes of vaginismus, including past trauma or abuse, lack of knowledge about sexual anatomy, physical conditions in the genital area, and psychological factors such as an anxiety response and stress. Treatment typically involves therapy, education, and relaxation techniques to address the underlying causes of the condition and help a woman overcome vaginismus.

Frequently Asked Questions

(1) Does Vaginismus cause lack of sexual desire?
While it is not uncommon for people with vaginismus to experience a lack of sexual desire, it is important to note that there can be many different causes of low sexual desire, and vaginismus is just one potential factor.


In some cases, the discomfort or pain associated with vaginismus (such as painful intercourse) can lead to a decrease in sexual desire. This can be due to the physical discomfort, as well as the emotional and psychological impact of the condition. Additionally, a lack of sexual desire can also be a result of other factors, such as stress, relationship concerns, or medical conditions.


(2) What types of therapies work for Vaginismus?
Vaginismus can be caused by a variety of physical and psychological factors. Some of the therapies that have been found to be effective in treating vaginismus include:

  • Pelvic floor muscle exercises: These exercises, also known as Kegel exercises, can help to strengthen the muscles in the pelvis and improve control over the muscles of the vagina.
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): CBT can help individuals with vaginismus to identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that may be contributing to the condition.
  • Sex therapy: A sex therapist can work with individuals with vaginismus to address any underlying emotional or psychological concerns that may be contributing to the condition and to develop coping strategies and communication skills to improve their sexual relationships.
  • Graduated dilation therapy: This therapy involves gradually stretching the muscles of the vagina using dilators of increasing size. It can be done at home or with the help of a healthcare provider.
  • Systematic desensitization: This therapy involves gradually exposing the individual to the feared stimulus (in this case, sexual intercourse) in a controlled and supportive environment, with the goal of reducing anxiety and increasing tolerance.

It is important to work with a healthcare provider or mental health professional to determine the most appropriate treatment approach for your specific situation.


Sexual health is as important as physical and mental health. In most cases, one consultation can go a long way. Personalised, discreet, and judgement-free treatment at your fingertips – book an online consultation with one of Allo’s leading experts.